Sunday, October 24, 2010

Mumbai 100 Years Ago - (Mumbai then and now)

The World Luxury Council (India) recently hosted a vintage art exhibit at The Oberoi in Mumbai called Mumbai 100 Years Ago

On display were unpublished archival prints of some of the city's most prominent landmarks on canvas.
Dhara Patel, the business head of the World Luxury Council informed that these prints were sourced from a consortium of collectors.

Mumbai 100 years ago
Mumbai 100 years ago
"Some of these were postcards, others were photographs, which were bought from collectors, revived with special ink and printed on a special canvas that would guarantee them a life span for the next 100 years," she said.

Patel also said that while these prints could be reproduced on request, they would be restricted to only 10 prints of each picture.

The World Luxury Council is headquartered in London and deals in international business in the luxury arena. It provides assistance and advice to luxury brands by designing promotions and creating distribution and networking platforms.

Ticca Garis & taxis parked outside Taj Mahal Hotel (Year: 1885)

Ticca Garis were horse-drawn Victoria carriages (named after the British monarch), and were the only mode of transport to come to Bombay in 1882 after The Bombay Tramway Company Limited was formally set up in 1873.

The Bombay Presidency enacted the Bombay Tramways Act 1874, under which the company was licensed to run a tramway service drawn by one or two horses. In 1905, the newly formed concern, The Bombay Electric Supply & Tramways Company Limited, bought The Bombay Tramway Company, and the first electrically operated tram cars appeared on the city roads in 1907.

There were three categories of Ticca Garis, or licensed cabs. Those of the first class were conspicuous by their absence and it was rumoured that the term was applied to funeral carriages. The second class Ticca was less stoutly constructed but cleaner than the London four-wheeled cab of that time. Ticcas belonging to the third class were ramshackle contraptions drawn by half-starved ponies.

This quaint mode of transport was gradually replaced in time. The first automobile was brought to Bombay in 1897-98. The first car imported by an Indian belonged to the eminent industrialist Jamshetji Tata. Motor taxis were introduced in 1811 whereas motorbuses started playing in 1926.

Taj Hotel
Taj Hotel
Today, the Victorias in front of the Taj have been replaced by black and yellow taxis. But, one can still hire a Ticca Gari for a negotiated sum and drive along the sea face for an experience.

Esplanade Road Kala Ghoda (Year: 1887)

Renamed Mahatma Gandhi Road, Esplanade Road, like most parts of South Bombay, is lined with heritage structures; Elphinstone College and the David Sassoon Library are amongst the prominent ones.
Kala Ghoda
Kala Ghoda
Established in 1856, Elphinstone College is one of the oldest of colleges of the University of Bombay. It played an important role in the spread of Western education in the city. During the British Raj, the college was amongst the most coveted, producing several luminaries like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Pherozeshah Mehta, Jamshedji Tata, Homi K Bhabha and Dadabhai Naoroji. Inception classes of the University of Bombay were held here before being moved to the Fort campus.

The building was originally meant for the government central press; and although, the building is now a college, about half of the floor area is shared with the Maharashtra Archives Department.

The building, constructed in the 'Romanesque Transitional' style, cost Rs 750,000 to build. Sir Cowasjee Jehangir generously donated the amount. Today, it is categorised as a Grade I heritage structure.

The well-known Jehangir Art Gallery is across the street as also the entrance to the Prince of Wales Museum (now Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya).

The David Sassoon Library was the brainchild of Albert Sassoon, son of the famous Baghdadi Jewish philanthropist, David Sassoon. Architects J Campbell and G E Gosling constructed it for the Scott McClelland and Company.

It cost Rs 125,000 to build, of which David Sassoon donated Rs 60,000; the government paid the remaining amount. Completed in 1870, the building was built using yellow Malad stone, much like the abutting Elphinstone College, Army and Navy Buildings and Watson's Hotel. A white stone bust of David Sassoon rests above the entrance portico

Rajabhai towers and Bombay University (Year: 1878)

Standing tall at 85 metres (280 feet), the Rajabai Tower was designed by English architect Sir George Gilbert Scott and modelled on the Big Ben in the UK. Premchand Roychand, a successful businessman who established the Bombay Stock Exchange, covered the cost of its construction on the condition that the clock tower be named after his mother Rajabai.

Roychand's mother was a devout Jain who ate her dinner before sunset. And, since she was blind, the evening bell of the tower helped her know the time of the day.

Rajabhai Tower
Rajabhai Tower
The foundation stone for the structure was laid on March 1, 1869. Construction was completed in November 1878 and cost Rs 2 lakh -- a handsome sum in those times.

A fusion of Venetian and Gothic styles of architecture, the tower was built using the locally available buff coloured Kurla stone. Its stained glass windows are still one of the best in the city.

In the times of the British Raj, one could hear the tower play 16 different tunes (including 'Rule Britannia', 'God Save the King' and 'Home! Sweet Home!'), which changed four times a day. Today, it chimes a single tune every 15 minutes.

The tower, the tallest structure in Bombay at one point, was closed to the public when it became a spot frequented by the suicidal.
Rajabhai Tower Ground
Rajabhai Tower Ground

The campus of the University of Bombay (University of Mumbai as of September 1996) was established in 1857 in Fort. It was one of the first educational institutions founded by the British in India. Built in the Gothic style of architecture, it houses the administrative division of the university and a library that holds many original manuscripts. It has been given a five-star ranking by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), and has a world ranking of 401.

Its long list of prominent alumni includes leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Lokmanya Tilak and BR Ambedkar as well as personalities like Shabana Azmi, Anant Pai, Mukesh Ambani, Anand Patwardhan and Aishwarya Rai.

Bombay Municipal Corporation (Year: 1893)

The headquarters of India's richest municipal organisation is the Bombay Municipal Corporation or BMC Building. Renamed Brihanmumbai Mahanagar Palika, it is considered a Grade IIA heritage building and houses the civic body that governs the city of Mumbai.

It has a motto: 'Yato Dharmastato Jaya', which is Sanskrit for 'Where there is Righteousness, there shall be Victory' this is inscribed on the banner of its Coat of Arms.

BMC Building
BMC Building
The BMC was created in 1865 and Arthur Crawford was its first Municipal Commissioner. The municipality was initially housed in a modest building at the terminus of Girgaum Road.
In 1870, it was shifted to a building on the Esplanade, located between Watson Hotel and the Sassoon Mechanics Institute, which is where the present Army & Navy building is situated.

On December 9, 1884, the foundation stone for the new building of the Bombay Municipal Corporation was laid opposite Victoria Terminus (now Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) by the then Viceroy, Lord Ripon.

Two designs were considered for the building -- a Gothic version by FW Stevens and an Indo-Saracenic version by Robert Fellowes Chisholm. The former was selected. And the imposing structure was completed in 1893, with its tallest tower rising up to 77.7 metres (255 feet).

The chief architectural feature is its central dome, which rises to a phenomenal height of 71.5 metres (234.6 feet) and is visible even from a distance. At the entrance stands an impressive bronze statue of Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, giving a picturesque view of the roads and buildings in front.

Victoria Terminus Railway station (Year 1887)

Victoria Terminus (now Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) was the headquarters of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and now of the Central Railway.

Architect Frederick William Stevens designed the station and received Rs 16.14 lakh for his work, a staggering amount for those days. Stevens earned the commission to construct the station after a masterpiece watercolour sketch by draughtsman Axel Haig.

VT Station 1
VT Station 1
Though rumours suggest that the design was originally designated for Flinders Street Station, there is no evidence in its favour. However, the final design is similar to the St Pancras railway station in London.

The station was named 'Victoria Terminus' in honour of the Queen and Empress Victoria, and was opened on the date of her Golden Jubilee: June 20, 1887. Built in the Gothic architectural style, with Wilsom Bell Mice as the chief engineer, the structure took 10 years to be completed.
VT Station 2
VT Station 2
The crowning glory is the central dome carrying at its apex, a colossal 5 metre (16.6 feet) high figure of a lady holding a flaming torch in her right hand and a wheel in her left hand that symbolises 'progress'. This dome is reportedly the first octagonal ribbed masonry dome that was adapted to an Italian Gothic style building. The interior of the dome is exposed to view from the ground floor, and the dome-well that carries the main staircase has been artistically decorated.

On the faade are also large bass-relief sculptures of 10 directors of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Company, including Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy and Sir Jagannath Shankar Seth.

The entrance gates to Victoria Terminus carry two main gate columns, which are crowned, one with a Lion (representing the United Kingdom) and the other with a Tiger (representing India), both sculptured in Porbunder sandstone. In 1969, the statue of Progress was damaged due to lightning, but the Central Railway authorities with the help of Professor VV Manjrekar of the JJ School of Arts successfully restored it.

In 2004, the station was nominated as a World Heritage Site by the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO

Taj Palace Hotel Entrance (Year: 1903)

The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel is one of the city's most iconic landmarks, and is located near the Gateway of India at Apollo Bunder.

Jamshedji Tata, a Parsi entrepreneur and prominent industrialist, commissioned this five-star luxury hotel. Built in the Indo-Saracenic architectural style and containing 565 rooms, the Taj Mahal Palace hotel resort opened its doors to its guest for the first time on December 16, 1903.

Taj Hotel - Then
Taj Hotel - Then
Sher Singh was the old owner of the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel; now it is a part of the Taj Hotels, Resorts and Palaces. During World War I, the hotel was converted into a 600-bed hospital.

Sitaram Khanderao Vaidya, Ashok Kumar and DN Mirza were the Indian architects on this project, which was completed by the English engineer WA Chambers. Khansaheb Sorabji Ruttonji Contractor was the builder, who also designed and built its famous central floating staircase.

To build the dome of the hotel, Jamshedji Tata imported the same steel that has been used in the Eiffel Tower. The hotel is the first in India to install and operate a steam elevator. The cost of construction totalled a massive 250,000.

Taj Hotel - Now
Taj Hotel - Now
The side of the hotel seen from the harbour is actually its rear with the front facing away to the west. Rumour has it that the builder misread the architect's plans, but this is not true. The hotel was deliberately built facing inland as it provided an easier approach for the horse carriages of those days. Today, the old front has been closed and access to the hotel is from the harbour side.

According misconception about the Taj is that Jamshedji Tata decided to build this luxury hotel because he was denied entry into the 'whites only' Watson's Hotel. This claim has been challenged by some commentators who say that Tata was unlikely to have been concerned with revenge against his British adversaries. They believe that it was the editor of the Times of India who urged Tata to build a hotel "worthy of Bombay".

Hotel Majestic and Waterloo Mansion (Year 1890)

Situated a few minutes away from the business district of Ballard Estate and the art area of Kala Ghoda, the Majestic Hotel was one of the city's best hotels, offering its clients a variety of dining and other facilities.

WA Chambers designed it in the Indo-Saracenic architectural style. Chambers was also the engineer on the famous Taj Mahal Palace Hotel at Apollo Bunder.

Hotel Majestic - Then
Hotel Majestic - Then
Along with the Waterloo Mansion next door, the Majestic Hotel became one of the most photographed pieces of architecture in the city and was frequently featured in postcards of the early 20th century.

Unfortunately, post Independence, like it has been with many of our heritage sites, the condition of the building deteriorated due to lack of interest in preservation. The government eventually took over the property in the 1960s and renamed it Sahakari Bhandar. Now, it has been completely transformed and performs the dual function of a cooperative general store and a hostel for members of the legislative assembly.
Hotel Majestic - Now
Hotel Majestic - Now
The erstwhile Waterloo Mansion, which was then built exclusively for residential purposes, is now referred to as the Indian Mercantile Building. Its architectural style is Gothic with turrets, pointed arches and black stone faades. Old postcard pictures depict each tower being topped with a red tiled pyramidal roof. It is not known when and why these roof structures were removed.

Both, the Majestic Hotel and the Waterloo Mansion, are located near the Wellington Fountain Circle, also known as the Regal Circle, but officially renamed as Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Chowk

Pydownie Mohammed Ali Road (Year unknown)

Mohammed Ali Road is a stretch between the junctions of Crawford Market and Mandvi Post Office. This vital artery of the city's road network is named after the late freedom fighters, Maulana Mohammed Ali and Shaukhat Ali.

Mohammed Ali Road - Then
Mohammed Ali Road - Then
The brothers had joined hands with Mahatma Gandhi to launch the Khilafat Movement against the British. After the First War of Independence in 1857, this was the first major instance of Hindu-Muslim unity. Maulana Mohammad Ali was also one of the founders of the Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi and its first Vice Chancellor. He was a renowned journalist as well as an Urdu poet.

The street was previously known as Pydownie Street thanks to a British perversion of the word 'Pydhonie', which literally translates as 'a place where feet are washed'. This probably was the first portion of the land permanently reclaimed from the sea.
The 'foot wash' area can be recognised as a small creek that formed during high tide between the islands of Mazgaon and Bombay.

Mohammed Ali Road - Now
Mohammed Ali Road -Now
The street, abuzz at all hours of the day, epitomises the spirit of the city that never sleeps. Being a primarily Muslim dominated area, it comes alive during in the period of Ramadan. Gastronomists throng its by-lanes that tempt all with offerings of mouth-watering delicacies. Famous sweetmeat shops like Zam Zam, Suleman Usman, Ghasita Ram, Hatim and Lookmanji flank the road.

Amidst the chaos, the light green coloured Minara Masjid sparkles under a cloud of tiny fairy lights during festive nights. Another one of the primary landmarks in the area is the Mumbadevi Temple that was financed by a goldsmith called Pandurang Shivaji Sonar.

Today, the JJ flyover (now renamed after the saint Makhdoom Ali Mahimi) curves above this street for 2.1 kilometres, making it the longest viaduct in the country.

Round Temple Sandhurst Road (Year unknown)

The Round Temple of Bombay is also known as the Gol Dewal and is located on Sandhurst Road in South Bombay. Around the temple is a 'stone' market said to be the city's oldest; here, one can choose from a wide variety of stones to use to furnish one's home.

Round Temple - sandhurst Road
Round Temple - sandhurst Road - Then
Sandhurst Road is also a railway station on the Central Line of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. The area is named after Lord Sandhurst, who was the Governor of Bombay from 1895 to 1900. The station was built in 1910 using funds from the Bombay City Improvement Trust, which he had helped raise.

The Trust had been created in response to the plague epidemic of 1896 to improve sanitary and living conditions in the city.

Round Temple - sandhurst Road  Now
Round Temple - sandhurst Road - Now
The railway station was built in 1921. The supporting pillars of the edifice bear the inscription "GIPR 1921 Lutha Iron Works, Glasgow". (GIPR stands for Great Indian Peninsula Railway, which was a predecessor of the Indian Central Railway.) The fabricated metal was imported from the United Kingdom

The Bombay Club (Year: 1845)

In the Fort area was a historical club founded by the members of the Indian Navy as far back as 1845. As suited them and their proud vessels, it was within a stone's throw of the dock and the harbour.

It was situated in Rampart Row, West, which has sometimes been called Ropewalk. It was located on the premises, which had been afterwards occupied for years by the P&O Company.
Bombay Club - Then
Bombay Club - Then

This Club, of course, was confined to members of the Indian and Royal Navy. It, too, had its own rich naval traditions, which seem to have been lost in oblivion, but one could wish that they were ransacked and collected in a readable form, as they would constitute a distinctive and remarkable chapter in the making of Bombay for a century.

In the 1850s, the Bombay Club, as it was called, was a flourishing institution; and though strangers were confined to the tearoom, the one proud trophy the Club possessed was to be seen there. It was a bell, which one of the warships of the Indian Navy had brought as a prize from the first Burmese War.

The bell is still in existence, having been taken over as a valuable historical asset from the old Club by its successor. The present Bombay Club is in no sense a naval club. It is open to all European merchants, specially bankers, traders, mercantile assistants and brokers. But the glory, which the Indian Navy shed on its own original institution, is gone.

Oriental Buildings and Hornby Road (Year: 1885)

One of the first few buildings to come up in the Fort area was the Oriental Building in 1885, which cost Rs 87,000 and initially housed the Cathedral School.

In 1893, the building was sold to the Oriental Life Assurance Company; and with the proceeds the present Senior School building, a beautiful blend of Gothic and Indian architecture, was erected and occupied in 1896.

Oriental Building - Then
Oriental Building - Then
Starting from Crawford Market, passing by Victoria Terminus and stretching all the way to Flora Fountain is the Hornby Road, now known as Dadabhai Naoroji Road. It was a simple street that was widened into an avenue in the 1860s, and is now studded with structures built in the Neo-Classical and Gothic Revival styles of the 19th century.

Besides the three mentioned heritage sites, the road also displays the grand structures of the Bombay Municipal Corporation, Times of India, JJ School of Art, J N Petit Public Library and Watcha Agiary.

Oriental Building - Now
Oriental Building -Now
The history of Hornby Road, named after the then governor William Hornby, can be traced to more than 200 years ago when the British East India Company built the Fort that was later demolished to make space for growing civic requirements. It was then that the small street was broadened into an avenue and impressive buildings built along its stretch.

These structures, built between 1885 and 1919, were constructed in accordance with mandatory (government regulation of 1896) pedestrian arcade in the ground floor that performed as the unifying element tying together the various building facades. The result was a splendid spectacle of structures in various architectural styles linked together by a continuous ground floor pedestrian arcade along the street-scape.

Sunday, October 17, 2010

Happy Dussehra to All!

Marked by the end of nine days of Navratras, Dussehra is a popular Indian festival, celebrated with great cheer along the length and breadth of the country. It was on this auspicious day that the ten-faced demon-king, Ravana, was defeated and killed by the great Lord Rama along with the rescue of his wife, Sita, who was abducted by Ravana.

In simple words, the day holds great significance as it signifies the triumph of good over evil in the Hindu mythology. The legendary victory is reenacted every year as the north Indian parts of the country still burns huge effigies of the demon, Ravana, along with his giant brothers, Meghnath and Kumbhkarna. The crowd bursts in great cheer as crackers within the effigies catch fire.

With immense happiness and joyfulness, mahen-theguru conveys best regards to all its associates. We hope you stay by the victory of good always and never fall by the side of evil. Let the light of triumph diminish the darkness in your life. Happy Dussehra!

Saturday, October 16, 2010

Idioms and proverbs from India

Uske ghar mein der hai andher nahi
There is delay in his house but not injustice
Meaning: In god's house there might be delay in serving justice but never overlooked.

Uski lathi mein awaaz nahi hai
His stick doesn't make noise.
Meaning: God's justice

Ram milaee jodi, ek aandha, ek kodhi
God made match, one is blind and the other is a leper
Meaning: Made for each other in a negative manner.

Choona lagana
To put an alkaline paste
Meaning: To dupe someone

Gadhe ke sir pe se singh gayab hona
The horn on the head of a donkey vanishes
Meaning: To be missing

Kheesaee billi khamba noche
Embarrassed cat scratches a pillar
Meaning: To be embarrassed

Hathi si chal
Walk like an elephant
Meaning: No care attitude

Bheegi billi
Wet cat 
Meaning: Scared person

Baap bada na bhaiya, sabse bada rupaiya
Neither is the father nor the brother are big, only money is big.
Meaning: Money rules over relationships as well.

Aasteen ka saap
Snake of the sleeve
Meaning: The decietful is very closely related or known

Garibi mein atta geela
The dough is runny in poverty
Meaning: In adversity, everything takes a bad turn.

Jale pe namak chidkna
To sprinkle salt on the burn
Meaning: To add to the miseries

Ghada charya khet na paap na punya
To let the donkey graze in the farm, you will not reap friut nor sin
Meaning: Meaningless activity

Bhawan ke ghar der hai andher nahi
There is delay in god's house not darkness
Meaning: All is fair in life even if there are slight delays.

Laatoen ke bhoot batoen se nahi mante
The ghost of feet don't agree to talks
Meaning: Those who are stubborn will not be easliy convinced by logical talking.

Jaisi karni vaisi bharni
What you do , so shall you fill
Meaning: You will reap as you sow

Hing lage na phitkari, rang bhi chowka aeh
No need for asafoetida or potash alum to get colour
Meaning: To have a gain without much effort

Lohe ke chane chabana

To chew iron pellets
Meaning: To be confronted by an incredibly difficult task

Sabr ka phal mitha hota hai
The fruit of patience is sweet
Meaning: Patience is virtue

Muh me sone ki chamch le kar paida hona
To be be born with a gold spoon in the mouth 
Meaning: To be born rich

Beeta hua pal vapas nahi aata
Gone time does not come back
Meaning: Don't dwell in past
Time doesn't come back so no point wasting time

Dushman ke dant khatte karna
To make the teeth of enemy sour
Meaning: To defeat the enemy

Dhobte to tinke ka sahara
Those who are drowning get help of a twig 
Meaning: Even the smallest of the thing can help those in dire need

Dhoop me bal safed karna
To whiten hair in the sun 
Meaning: To get experience as age progresses

Ghar ki murgi dal brabar
Pet chicken is like lentil
Meaning: Not to realize the worth of loved ones

Hawa se batein karna
To talk to the wind
Meaning: As fast as the wind

Ghee ke diye jalana
To light oil lamp full of ghee (clarified butter)
Meaning: To rejoice

Chalti ka naam gadi
That which runs is called a car
Meaning: When the things are running smoothly, let it be

Dal me kuch kala hai
There is sometging black in the lentil
Meaning: Something is fishy

Jaisi karni, vasi bharni
To get results according to actions
Meaning: You reap as you sow

Apne mouh miya mithu
To have a mouth like a parrot
Meaning: To praise one ownself

Andha kya chahe, do aankh
What does the blind desires , but ofcourse eyesight
Meaning: To desire just the perfect thing

Chor chor mausare bhai
Thieves are cousins
Meaning: Evil attracts evil

Ulta chor kotwal ko datein
The thief scolds the police officier 
Meaning: Offence is the best defence

Lakeer ka fakir
Master of a line
Meaning: To go about the same old beaten path

Aant bhala tho sab bhala
If the end is good then all is good
Meaning: All's well that ends well

Sau sunar ki, ek lohar ki
Hundred blows of goldsmith is comparable to one blow of ironsmith 
Meaning: One powerful blow is comparable to a hundred smaller blows

Ooth ke mouh me jeera
Cumin in camel's mouth
Meaning: A very small gain as compared to the the larger gain expected

Bandar kya jane adrak ka swad
Monkey doesn't know the taste of ginger
Meaning: Those who don't know, can't appreciate

Pani pani hona
To become water water
Meaning: To be embarrassed

Ab pachtay hot kya jab chidiya chug gayi khet
What is the use of repenting now when the bird has eaten the harvest
Meaning: No use repenting when it is too late to undo the damage

Aap bhale to jag bhala
Good person sees the whole world as good
Meaning: Good person sees the whole world as good

Ek teer do nishane
One arrow, two targets
Meaning: To achieve two things with one means

Kaan ka kaccha hona
To be weak of ears
Meaning: To believe everything one hears

Thota chana baje ghana
Hollow lentil makes more noise
Meaning: Those who are not capable of delivering talk more

Ek haath se taali nahi bajati
You can not clap with one hand
Meaning: It takes two

Nau do gayara
Nine plus two makes eleven
Meaning: To run away

Ek aur ek gayaraha
One plus one makes eleven
Meaning: Strength in unity

Bahti ganga me hath dona
To wash ones hand in the river
Meaning: To be an opportunist

Ulti ganga bahana
Meaning: To go against the law of nature

Nach na jane agan tedha
One doesn’t know how to dance and blames it on the stage being uneven
Meaning: To blame the means available rather than capability

900 chuhe khake billi haj ko chali
Cat went to pray after eating 900 rats
Meaning: Pretending to be innicent after many sins

Hathi ke dant dekhane ke aur khane ke aur
Elephant has two set of teeth-one to show off and the other to chew with
Meaning: What you see is not necessarily true

Jo garjte hai vo baraste nahi
Those who thunder don’t pour

Meaning: Those who talk don’t perform

Famous quotes by Gautam Buddha

  • “All that we are is the result of what we have thought. The mind is everything. What we think we become.”
  • “Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.”
  • “Thousands of candles can be lit from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared.”
  • “You will not be punished for your anger, you will be punished by your anger.”
  • “The mind is everything. What you think you become.”
  • “You yourself, as much as anybody in the entire universe, deserve your love and affection.”
  • “Three things cannot be long hidden: the sun, the moon, and the truth.”
  • “Those who are free of resentful thoughts surely find peace.”
  • “To understand everything is to forgive everything”
  • “We are shaped by our thoughts; we become what we think. When the mind is pure, joy follows like a shadow that never leaves.”
  • “The only real failure in life is not to be true to the best one knows.”
  • “You cannot travel the path until you have become the path itself”
  • “An idea that is developed and put into action is more important than an idea that exists only as an idea.”
  • “When you realize how perfect everything is you will tilt your head back and laugh at the sky”
  • “However many holy words you read,However many you speak,What good will they do you If you do not act on upon them?”
  • “A jug fills drop by drop.”
  • “The tongue like a sharp knife... Kills without drawing blood.”
  • “Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense.”
  • “Even death is not to be feared by one who has lived wisely.”
  • “A dog is not considered a good dog because he is a good barker. A man is not considered a good man because he is a good talker.”
  • “There is nothing more dreadful than the habit of doubt. Doubt separates people. It is a poison that disintegrates friendships and breaks up pleasant relations. It is a thorn that irritates and hurts; it is a sword that kills.”
  • “The way is not in the sky. The way is in the heart.”
  • “Have compassion for all beings, rich and poor alike; each has their suffering. Some suffer too much, others too little.”
  • “Teach this triple truth to all: A generous heart, kind speech, and a life of service and compassion are the things which renew humanity.”
  • “The whole secret of existence is to have no fear. Never fear what will become of you, depend on no one. Only the moment you reject all help are you freed.”
  • “No one saves us but ourselves. No one can and no one may. We ourselves must walk the path.”
  • “The secret of health for both mind and body is not to mourn for the past, worry about the future, or anticipate troubles, but to live in the present moment wisely and earnestly.”
  • “Your work is to discover your work and then with all your heart to give yourself to it.”
  • “Work out your own salvation. Do not depend on others.”
  • “Do not believe in anything simply because you have heard it. Do not believe in anything simply because it is spoken and rumored by many. Do not believe in anything simply because it is found written in your religious books. Do not believe in anything merely on the authority of your teachers and elders. Do not believe in traditions because they have been handed down for many generations. But after observation and analysis, when you find that anything agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and benefit of one and all, then accept it and live up to it.”
  • “What we think, we become.”
  • “To conquer oneself is a greater task than conquering others”
  • “Better than a thousand hollow words, is one word that brings peace.”
  • “He who loves 50 people has 50 woes; he who loves no one has no woes.”
  • “To keep the body in good health is a duty...otherwise we shall not be able to keep our mind strong and clear.”
  • “There has to be evil so that good can prove its purity above it.”
  • “Life is suffering.”
  • “Hatred does not cease through hatred at any time. Hatred ceases through love. This is an unalterable law.”
  • “Whatever words we utter should be chosen with care for people will hear them and be influenced by them for good or ill.”

Thursday, October 14, 2010

आरती प्रीतम प्यारी की, कि बनवारी नथवारी की - Arti Preetam Pyaari Ki


जय श्री राधे कृष्ण"
आरती प्रीतम प्यारी की, कि बनवारी नथवारी की
दुहुन सिर कनक मुकुट छलके
दुहुन श्रुति कुण्डल भल हलके
दुहुन दृग प्रेम सुधा छलके
चसीले बैन, रसीले नैन, गसीले सैन
दुहुन मैनन मनहारी की
कि बनवारी नथवारी की
आरती प्रीतम प्यारी की, कि बनवारी नथवारी की
दुहुनि दृग चितवनि पर वारी
दुहुनि लट लटिकनि छवि न्यारी
दुहुनि भौं मटकनि अति प्यारी
रसन मुख पान, हंसन मुस्कान, दसन दमकान
दुहुनि बेसर छवि न्यारी की
कि बनवारी नथवारी की
आरती प्रीतम प्यारी की, कि बनवारी नथवारी की
एक उर पीतांबर फहरे, एक उर नीलांबर लहरे
दुहुन उर लर मोतिन छहरे
कनकानन कनक, किंकिनी झनक, नुपुरन भनक
दुहुन रुन झुन धुनि प्यारी की
कि बनवारी नथवारी की
आरती प्रीतम प्यारी की, कि बनवारी नथवारी की
एक सिर मोर मुकुट राजे
एक सिर चूनर छवि साजे
दुहुन सिर तिरछे भल भ्राजे
संग ब्रजबाल, लाडली लाल, बांह गल डाल
‘कृपालु’ दुहुन दृग चारि की
कि बनवारी नथवारी की
आरती प्रीतम प्यारी की, कि बनवारी नथवारी की

"जय श्री राधे कृष्ण"

Surdas - Indian Poet

करत करत अभ्यास के, जड़मति होत सुजान रसरी आवत जात ते, 
सिल पर परत निसान.हरी दर्शन की प्यासीअखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासी (३)
देखियो चाहत कमल नैन को..निसदिन रहेत उदासीअखियाँ निसदिन रहेत उदासी..
अखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासीआये उधो फिरी गए आँगन..
दारी गए गर फँसी..अखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासी..
अखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासी..

केसर तिलक मोतियाँ की माला..
ब्रिन्दावन को वासी..अखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासी..
अखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासी..
कहोके मंकी कोवु न जाने..
लोगन के मन हासी..
अखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासी..
अखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासी..
सूरदास प्रभु तुम्हारे दरस बिन..
लेहो करवट कासी..
अखियाँ हरी दर्शनदरसन की प्यासी..
अखियाँ हरी दर्शन की प्यासी.. 

The group of 16th-century Hindi poets, four of whom were disciples of Vallabha, and four of his son and successor, Vitthala.

The greatest of the group was Surdas, a blind singer whose descriptions of the exploits of the child-god Krishna are the highlights of his collection of poetry, the Sursagar, is admired throughout the Hindi-speaking areas of northern India. 

It is particularly rich in its details of daily life and in its sensitive perception of human emotion, the parent's for the child and the maiden's for her lover.  Other members of the Astchap group were Paramananddas, Nanddas, Karsandas, Govindswami, Kumbh-andas, Chitaswami, and Chaturbhujdas. What is commonly spoken of as Hindu is actually a range of languages, from Maithili in the east to Rajasthani in the west. 

The first major work in Hindi is the 12th-century epic poem Prthviraj Rasau, by Chand Bardai of Lahore, which recounts the feats of Prithviraj, the last Hindu king of Delhi before the Islamic invasions. 
The work evolved from the tradition maintained at the courts of the Rajputs. 

Noteworthy also is the poetry of the Persian poet Amir Khosrow, who wrote in the Awadhi dialect. 
Most of the literature in Hindi is religious in inspiration; in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the reform-minded Kabir, for example, wrote sturdy short poems in which he sought to reconcile Islam and Hinduism. 

The most celebrated author in Hindi is Tulsidas, who renounced the world early in life and spent his days in Benares as a religious devotee. He wrote much, mostly in Awadhi, and focussed Hinduism on the worship of Rama. 

His most important work is the Ramcharit-manas, which is based on the Sanskrit Ramayana. More than any other work it has become a Hindu sacred text for the Hindi-speaking area and annually has been staged in the popular Ram Lila festival. 

Outstanding among the followers of Vallabha, philosopher and bhakti advocate of the Middle Ages, is the blind poet Surdas (died 1563), who composed countless bhajans (chants) in praise of Krishna and Radha, which are collected in the Sursagar. 

While many of the bhakti poets were of modest origin, an exception was Mira Bai, a princess of Jodhpur, who wrote her famous lyrics both in Hindi and Gujarati; the quality of her poetry, still very popular, is not as high, however, as that of Surdas. Significant also is the religious epic Padmavati by Jayasi, a Muslim from former Oudh state. Written in Awadhi (c. 1540), the epic is composed according to the conventions of Sanskrit poets. 

The 18th century saw the beginning of a gradual transformation from the older forms of religious lyric and epic to new literary forms influenced by Western models that began to be known. The new trends reached their pinnacle in the work of Prem Chand (died 1936), whose novels especially Godan and short stories depict common rural life; and in the work of Harishchandra of Benares (died 1885), honoured as Bharatendu, who wrote in the Braj Bhasa dialect.

Some of the modern Indo-Aryan languages have literary traditions reaching back centuries, with enough textual continuity to distinguish Old, Middle, and Modern Bengali, Gujarati, and so on. Bengali can trace its literature back to Old Bengali charya-padas, late Buddhist verses thought to date from the 10th century; Gujarati literature dates from the 12th century Shalibhadra's Bharateshvara-bahubali-rasa and to a period when the area of western Rajasthan and Gujarat are believed to have had a literary language in common, called Old Western Rajasthani. 

Jñaneshvara's commentary on the Bhagavadgita in Old Marathi dates from the 13th century and early Maithili from the 14th century, Jyotishvara's Varna-ratnakara, while Assamese literary work dates from the 14th and 15th centuries Madhava Kandali's translation of the Ramayana, Shankaradeva's Vaisnavite works. Also of the 14th century are the Kashmiri poems of Lalla Lallavakyani, and Nepali works have also been assigned to this epoch. 

The work of Jagannath Das in Old Oriya dates from the 15th century.Amir Khosrow used the term hindvi in the 13th century, and he composed couplets that contained Hindi. In early times, however, other dialects were predominant in the Madhya-desha as literary media, especially Braj Bhasa, Surdas' Sursagar, 16th century, and Awadhi, Ramcaritmanas of Tulsidas, 16th century. In the south, in Golconda, Urdu poetry was seriously cultivated in the 17th century, and Urdu poets later came north to Delhi and Lucknow. Punjabi was used in Sikh works as early as the 16th century, and Sindhi was used in Sufi (Islamic) poetry of the 17th-19th centuries. 

In addition, there is evidence in late Middle Indo-Aryan works for the use of early New Indo-Aryan; e.g., provincial words and verses are cited. The creation of linguistic states has reinforced the use of certain standard dialects for communication within a state in official transactions, teaching, and on the radio. 

In addition, attempts are being made to evolve standardized technical vocabularies in these languages. Dialectal diversity has not ceased, however, resulting in much bilingualism; for example, a native speaker of Braj Bhasa uses Hindi for communicating in large cities such as Delhi. 

Moreover, the attempt to establish a single national language other than English continues. This search has its origin in national and Hindu movements of the 19th century down to the time of Mahatma Gandhi, who promoted the use of a simplified Hindi-Urdu, called Hindustani. 

The constitution of India in 1947 stressed the use of Hindi, providing for it to be the official national language after a period of 15 years during which English would continue in use. When the time came, however, Hindi could not be declared the sole national language; English remains a co-official language. Though Hindi can claim to be the lingua franca of a large population in North India, other languages such as Bengali have long and great literary traditions--including the work of Nobel Prize winner Rabindranath Tagore, and equal status as intellectual languages, so that resistance to the imposition of Hindi exists.